Astronomers find two massive exoplanets in adjacent binary systems. Astronomers have discovered two planets orbiting a bright dwarf star in the binary star system Gliese 414. An artist’s impression of the Gliese 414 system. Gliese 414 is approximately 39 light years distant in the constellation Ursa Major.
two massive exoplanets
Also known as GJ 414, HD 97101, or HIP 54646, the system is 12.4 billion years old. This includes the relatively active K7V-type dwarf star Gliese 414A and its smaller M2V-type dwarf companion, Gliese 414B. The physical separation between the two cables is approximately 408 AU (astronomical unit).
Two newly discovered exoplanets, called glycea 414Ab and c, orbit the large stars in the system. The inner planet is a subneptune in an eccentric orbit of 50.8 days. It is 2.95 times the size of Earth, 8.8 times the mass, and a temperature of about 31 degrees Celsius (88 degrees Fahrenheit).
The outer planet is sub-Saturn in a nearly circular orbit with an orbit of about 748.3 days. It is 8.8 times the size of Earth, 56.3 times the mass, and has a temperature of minus 150 degrees Celsius (minus 238 degrees Fahrenheit).
The planets were detected at the Keck I telescope at W.M using radio speed data from the H.MES instrument. KK Observatory and automated planet finder at the Leake Observatory, as well as photometric data from the KLT-North Telescope at the Winner Observatory.
three giant exoplanets
The Pennsylvania State University astronomer Kela Dedrick and colleagues wrote in their paper: Gliese 414Ac lives near the inner edge of the star’s habitable zone, but its minimum mass is large enough, probably to have a rich enough envelope in volatile. This planet is a potential candidate for future direct imaging missions.
Astronomers discovered three giant exoplanets in the ‘twin’ binary system. An international team of astronomers from the United States and Chile has detected three massive planets in the HD133131 system, a pair of stellar ‘twins’ that eclipse each other every 4,240 years. Artist’s concept of giant planets orbiting in a double star system.
HD 133131, also known as HIP 73674, is approximately 163 light years from Earth. This binary system was discovered in 1972 by astronomers Jurgen Stock and Herbert Wroblowski from the University of Chile. Scientists have described its age as 9.5 billion years compared to our Sun’s 4.6 billion years.
The two components of this binary, HD 133131A and HD 133131B, are “twins” of the same spectral type, G2V, which is similar to the Sun. The stars are only 360 AUs (astronomical units) apart, making them the most closely spaced ‘twins’ with the detected planets. The next closest binary system to host the planets consists of two stars spaced about 1,000 AU apart.
medium eccentric planets
This system is even rarer because it has twin host planets. HD 133131A houses two medium eccentric planets, labeled b and c. The planets are about 1.4 and 0.6 times the mass of Jupiter, respectively, and orbit their original stars at 1.44 and 4.79 AU. HD 133131B houses a labeled eccentric light planet. The planet is 2.5 times the mass of Jupiter and orbits its star at a distance of 6.4 AU.
The HD133131 system is also unusual in that both components are metallic decay, which means that most of their mass is hydrogen and helium, as opposed to other elements like iron or oxygen. Most of the stars that host giant planets are rich in metals. Only six other metal-poor binary systems with exoplanets have been found, making this discovery particularly intriguing.
the gravitational forces of known giant planets
In addition to the intrigue, the authors used very precise analysis to explain that the stars are not actually identical intrigued twins, as previously thought, but their chemical structures are slightly different, making them stellar equivalent to sinister twins. This may indicate that a star quickly swallowed up some baby planets in its lifetime, slightly altering their structure.
Alternatively, the gravitational forces of known giant planets that can have a strong impact on smaller fully formed planets flow towards the star or into space. Lead authors from the Carnegie Institution for Science, Drs. Johanna Teske said: There was little chance of finding a system with all these components.
So these results would serve as an important benchmark for understanding planet formation.
The discovery is made to locate the first exoplanet, based on data obtained from the planet finder spectrograph, a high-precision optical spectrograph powered by a 6.5-meter Magellan II telescope at the Las Campesana Observatory in Chile. We are trying to find out if giant planets like Jupiter are often in long or eccentric orbits, Dr. Tessan explained.
If this is the case, then this process would be an important clue by which our solar system is formed, and can help us understand where the habitable planets are located. The team’s findings have been accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal.
Ultraviolet aurora seen on Comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Using data from various devices on ESA’s Rosetta mission, researchers have found evidence of a distant ultraviolet aurora on Comet 67P. This mosaic of four false-color images contains images taken on February 3, 2015 from a distance of 28.7 km from the center of Comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
The mosaic measures 4.2 x 4.6 km
On Earth, the aurora occurs when electrically charged particles accelerating from the sun hit the upper atmosphere to form a glow of green, white, and red. In other parts of the solar system, Jupiter and some of its moons. As well as Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and even Mars, have exhibited their own version of the aurora.
The Rosetta spacecraft survived Comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko for more than two years. The data from the current study is based on what Rosetta scientists initially interpreted as “ow deglo,” the process of contact with the coma caused by photons and surrounding the comet’s nucleus. But the new analysis of the Rosetta data offers a very different picture.
67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko has a kind of glow around him, lead authors Drs. Marina Galand is a researcher at Imperial College London. By combining data from multiple Rosetta devices, we were able to get a better picture of what we were doing. This allowed us to identify how the ultraviolet atomic forms of 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko occur.
Source of energetic electrons responsible for the emission of far ultraviolet (FUV) in comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko: electron paths of the solar wind inducing auroras FUV around the comet. They undergo an acceleration through the ambipolar electric field created by the complement plasma.
Electron trajectories are shown along energy color-coded lines and the ambipolar electric field acting on electrons is filled with green arrows. The data indicates that the 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko emission are actually antennas in nature. Electrons flowing into the solar wind interact with the gas in the comet’s coma, breaking down water and other molecules.
two-year journey into the data hoard
The resulting atoms emit a specific far ultraviolet light. The naked eye far ultraviolet has the shortest radiation wavelength in the ultraviolet spectrum. Exploring the 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko emission will help researchers understand how particles in the solar wind change over time, something that is important for understanding space weather throughout the solar system.
By providing better information on how radiation from the sun affects the atmosphere of space, such information can ultimately help protect satellites and spacecraft. As well as astronauts traveling to the moon and to Mars. Johns Hopkins University scientists Drs. Paul Feldman said, “Rosetta is the gift that keeps on giving.”
You have returned to Comet’s two-year journey into the data hoard, which has allowed us to rewrite the book on these more extraterrestrial inhabitants of our solar system, and there is still much to come. The findings were published in the Journal Nature Astronomy. Unexpected ultraviolet aurora detected on a comet by the Rosetta spacecraft.
ESA’s Rosetta mission shows a unique aurora near Comet 67P / Cherumov-Gerasimenko. Data from the Southwest Research Institute instruments on ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft helped reveal the aroma emissions in the far ultraviolet surrounding a comet. When charged particles from the Sun form on Earth.
And our planet’s magnetic field lines follow the north and south poles. There, particles from the Sun meet atoms and molecules in Earth’s atmosphere and form shimmering curtains of colored light in the sky at high latitudes. Similar phenomena have been observed on various planets and moons in our solar system and even around a distant star.
SwRI’s instruments, the Alice Fern Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) and the Ion Electron Sensor (IES), help locate these novels on Comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P / CG). Charged particles from the sun flowing over the comet in solar energy interact with the gas surrounding the comet’s dusty and icy nucleus to create the atmosphere, said Dr. Jim Burch, vice president of Swai.
Who has led IES. “IES Instruments discovered electrons that caused Aurora. The gas envelope located around 67 KO / gas, known as a “coma”, is excited by the glow of particles from the sun and ultraviolet light, an interaction recorded by the Ellis FUV instrument. At first we thought the ultraviolet emissions from Comet 67P are known as ‘daylight’.
A process caused by compaction of solar gases, said Dr. Joel Parker of Sweary, who Ellis drives the surrogate. The emission is the aurora. Which is powered not by photons but by electrons from the solar wind that break up the water and other molecules in the coma and accelerate the area around the comet.
Nature Astronomy paper describing this discovery
The resulting excited atoms make up this specific light. Dr. from Imperial College London. Marina Galand led a team that used a physics-based model to integrate measurements made by various instruments aboard Rosetta. This way, we don’t have to rely on a single instrument data set, said Galand, lead author of the Nature Astronomy paper describing this discovery.
Instead, we can put together a larger data set with multiple devices to get a better idea of what is going on. This allowed us to clearly identify how ultraviolet nuclear emission from the 67P / CG form occurs and reveal its femoral nature. Ism Lagili Haber: Caltech’s use of seismic innovation underscores climatology shaking up climate science.
I studied the molecules of the earth for five decades, Birch said. It is surprising and surprising to find aurors around 67P that lack a magnetic field. After harmonizing with 67P / CG in 2014-2016, Rosetta provides data showing how the sun and solar winds have exchanged with comets. In addition to the discovery of these comet auroras.
Rosetta Orbiter Microwave Instrument (MIRO)
The spacecraft was the first to orbit the comet’s nucleus, flying alongside the comet as it entered the inner solar system and the first to send a lander to the surface of the comet. Other instruments that contributed to this research were the Rosetta Langmuir Probe (LAP), the Rosita Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (Rosina), the Rosetta Orbiter Microwave Instrument (MIRO).
The Infrared and Visible Thermal Imaging Spectrometer. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Phila Lander of Rosetta is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES, and ASI. Airbus Defense and Space built the Rosetta spacecraft.
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) manages the US contribution of the Rosetta mission to NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington, under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
JPL also produced a microwave instrument for the Rosetta orbiter, and its principal investigator, Dr. Mark Hoffstatter, is. SwRI (San Antonio and Boulder, Colorado) developed ion and electron sensors and the Rosetta Orbiter Ellis instrument and is home to its leading researchers.