Global Statistics

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232,245,591
Confirmed
Updated on September 26, 2021 1:05 am
All countries
207,132,169
Recovered
Updated on September 26, 2021 1:05 am
All countries
4,756,476
Deaths
Updated on September 26, 2021 1:05 am

Global Statistics

All countries
232,245,591
Confirmed
Updated on September 26, 2021 1:05 am
All countries
207,132,169
Recovered
Updated on September 26, 2021 1:05 am
All countries
4,756,476
Deaths
Updated on September 26, 2021 1:05 am
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Proton Aurora Is The Most Common Type Of Aurora On Mars

Proton Aurora Is The Most Common Type Of Aurora On Mars. The researchers say that the ‘proton aurora’ is the most common type of aurora on Mars. The proton aurora, a type of Martian aurora, was first identified in 2016. When solar wind protons interact with hydrogen in extended parts of the Martian atmosphere and travel to lower regions.

Proton Aurora

MAVEN’s IUVS instrument monitors the atmosphere of Mars, creating images of neutral hydrogen and proton aurora simultaneously (left); Observations in normal conditions show hydrogen in the disk and from the point of view during the night (in the middle) to the extended atmosphere of the planet.

The proton aurora appears as a critical luminosity in the organ and the disc (right); With the contribution of neutral hydrogen, the distribution of the proton aurora is detected. Which shows that it resembles the brightness peaks of the Mars disk, as well as the neutral energy impacted in the atmosphere. Previously, we believed that proton auro events were rare.

Because we weren’t looking at the right times and places, said Dr. Mike Chaffin, a researcher at the Boulder Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado. But after a closer look, we discover that the proton aurora is occurring more frequently during the southern summer days than we initially expected.

Greatest atmospheric migration

MAVEN’s mission is to test how much Mars has lost its atmosphere and water, changing its climate from one to a cold, dry and inaccessible life. Since the proton aurora is generated indirectly from the water produced by Mars, which is in the process of being lost in space, this phenomenon can be used to help track the ongoing water loss. In this new study that uses MAVEN / IUVS data for several years on Mars.

We find that the period of greatest atmospheric migration coincides with an increase in the occurrence and intensity of aurora protons, said Dr. of the Space Research Center and Atmospheric Andre Hughes and the Department of Physics of the University of Embryology-Aeronautics said.

Perhaps one day, when the planetary journey becomes common, travelers arriving on Mars during the southern summer will have front-row seats to see Martine’s protonic aurora that dances prominently during planetary days. On Earth, the north and south lights are produced.

NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft

When the solar wind (electrically charged particles from the Sun) reaches the poles following the lines of our planet’s geomagnetic field and collides with the upper atmosphere. Mars lacks a global magnetic field, so solar wind accumulates in front of Mars in an arc of shock.

Which prevents charged particles from reaching most of the atmosphere. However, in a process first seen by NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft, some solar wind protons can reverse the arc shock by first joining with electrons from the Martian upper atmosphere to create hydrogen atoms. Because these hydrogen atoms are electrically neutral.

They can suffer an arc shock and proceed to form auroras of ultraviolet protons on Mars on Earth. The north and south lights are produced when the solar wind (electrically charged particles from the Sun) reaches the poles following the geomagnetic field lines of our planet and collides with the upper atmosphere. Mars lacks a global magnetic field.

So solar wind accumulates in front of Mars in an arc of shock, which prevents charged particles from reaching most of the atmosphere. However, in a process first seen by NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft. Some solar wind protons can reverse the arc shock by first joining with electrons from the Martian upper atmosphere to create hydrogen atoms.

Because these hydrogen atoms are electrically neutral, they can suffer an arc shock and proceed to form auroras of ultraviolet protons on Mars. The study authors found the proton aurora in approximately 14% of their daytime observations.

atmospheric and Laboratory of Space Physics

Which increases to more than 80% of the time when only the observations of the southern summer are considered. By comparison, IUVS has detected the isolation of the aurora on Mars in some percentage orbits with favorable geometry. And discrete auroras fragments are still rare in the data set, said Dr. Nick Schneider.

And also atmospheric and Laboratory of Space Physics of the University of Colorado, Boulder. “All the conditions necessary to create a proton aurora on Mars (for example. The absence of a solar wind proton and an expanding hydrogen atmosphere and a global dipole magnetic field) are more available than those of Mars that form other types of auroras.

In addition, the relationship between MAVEN’s observations of atmospheric leaks and an increase in the frequency and intensity of the proton aurora means that the proton aurora will actually be used as a proxy for what is happening in the hydrogen crown around Mars and therefore, to be an indicator of the increase in atmospheric migration time and water scarcity.

The study was published in the Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics. A new study of strange auroras on Mars revealed something we did not expect: If we ever take it to Mars, the first visitors will visit some of the attractions of this world. But to see the majestic auroras that roam the sky of Mars during the day, they need ultraviolet.

A new study has found that a particular type of aurora, the proton aurora, is the most common form of occurrence on Mars. As on Earth (including northern lights), proton auroras form when solar winds come into contact with the atmosphere. However, these auroras are not just beautiful places to take cameras with UV.

They can help us understand how Mars’s climate is changing and how water is going to space on the red planet. Proton auroras form when solar winds collide with the gigantic hydrogen cloud around Mars and positively charged protons are neutralized by taking electrons from hydrogen atoms.

These interactions emit ultraviolet light, and because the water lost in space creates a cloud of hydrogen. Which can give scientists a way to measure water loss over time. The observations of the proton auroras on Mars provide a unique perspective of hydrogen and, therefore.

Proton auroras in 14 percent of daily observations

The lack of water on the planet, says physicist Edwin Mirkivic of the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Florida. Through this research….. We can gain a deeper understanding of the Sun’s interactions with the upper atmosphere of Mars and in our solar system, or in another solar system that lacks a global magnetic field.

Proton auroras were first detected by NASA’s Maven spacecraft in 2016, and in particular by their ultraviolet imaging spectrograph instrument (IUVS), but this new research makes it clear that they are the most common type of aurora in the planet.

The new analysis revealed proton auroras in 14 percent of daily observations in the MAVEN dataset, and 80 percent of daytime observations during southern summers on Mars, when the planet is close to the Sun. At first, we believed that these events were rare because we weren’t looking at the right times and places, says planetary scientist Mike Chaffin of the University of Colorado Boulder.

But after a closer look, we discover that the proton aurora is occurring more frequently in the southern summer days than we initially expected. Due to the increase in dust and summer heat, water vapor reaches higher altitudes, where the sun’s UV light divides it into hydrogen and oxygen.

In turn, this condenses the hydrogen cloud in the atmosphere and increases the auroras of protons. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center: The conceptual image that shows the current conditions of Mars (left) and how it could be seen once (right). These latest findings have not yet been published in a peer review journal.

Extended parts of the Martian atmosphere

But we can expect more results and analysis in the coming months and years: Studies that track water damage on Mars These protons can use aurora UV light. The researchers say that the ‘proton aurora’ is the most common type of aurora on Mars: the proton aurora, a type of Martian aurora, was first identified in 2016.

When solar wind protons interact with hydrogen in extended parts of the Martian atmosphere. Meanwhile, it is interesting to think that the magnificent auroras appear almost every day during the Martian summer, whenever you are looking for the right equipment. This is something for those who arrive early and want to see more.

Maybe one day, when the mutual journey becomes a common place, travelers arriving on Mars during the southern summer will have seats in the front row to observe Martine’s protonic aurora, which dances brilliantly during the days of the planet, in ultraviolet.

Use of sensitive glasses, of course, “he says. The planetary scientist Andre Hughes, of the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. The research is presented at a meeting of the American Geophysical Association. Do and travel to the lower regions.

According to observations made over several years using ultraviolet imaging spectrographs (IUVS) on NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft (Mars and the atmosphere of unstable evolution). The event is actually the most common form of the aurora on Mars.

This is seen in the data of 14% of MAVEN / IUVS on Mars Day, which is much higher than initially expected. Proton Aurora images on Mars: MAVEN’s IUVS device monitors the atmosphere of Mars, creating images of neutral hydrogen and proton aurora simultaneously (left).

Observations under normal conditions show hydrogen in the disk and at night (in the middle) of the planet’s extended atmosphere. The proton aurora appears as an important luminosity in the organ and the disc (right).

With the contribution of neutral hydrogen, the distribution of the proton aurora is detected, which indicates that it resembles the luminous peaks of the Mars disk. As well as the impacts of neutral energy in the atmosphere.

Previously, we believed that proton aurora events were rare because we were not looking at the right times and places, said Dr. Mike Chaffin. A researcher at the Boulder Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado. But one closer after Look.

Hughes and the Department of Physics

We discovered that the proton aurora is occurring more frequently than we started in the summer days of the south. The mission of MAVEN is to prove this It is to prove how much Mars has lost its atmosphere and water, changing its climate of a life cold, dry and inaccessible one by one.

Because the proton aurora is generated indirectly by the water created by Mars, which is space. This phenomenon can be used to help track the continuous damage of water, in the process of getting lost. this new study that uses data from MAVEN / VUVS Rat.

For several years on Mars. We found that the period of the highest atmospheric migration coincides with the increase in the occurrence ncia and intensity of the aurora protons, Dr. from the Andre Space and Atmospheric Research Center.

Hughes and the Department of Physics of the University of Physiology Aeronautics said. Maybe one day, when planetary travel becomes common and travelers arriving on Mars during the southern summer will have seats in the front row to see Martine’s protonic aurora dance prominently during planetary days.

On Earth, north and south light is produced when the solar wind (electrically charged particles from the Sun) reaches the poles along the lines of our planet’s geomagnetic field and hits the upper atmosphere. Mars lacks a global magnetic field.

So the solar wind accumulates like a shock against Mars, preventing charged particles from reaching most of the atmosphere. However, in a process first seen by NASA’s Maven spacecraft. Some solar wind protons can first reverse the arc shock by joining with electrons from the Martian upper atmosphere to form hydrogen atoms.

Because these hydrogen atoms are electrically neutral, they can withstand the impact of an arc and move on Mars as sets of ultraviolet protons. Image by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. On Earth, northern and southern light is produced when the solar wind (electrically charged particles of the Sun) reaches the poles following the lines of our planet’s geomagnetic field and collides with the upper atmosphere.

Mars lacks a global magnetic field, so the solar wind accumulates like a shock against Mars, preventing charged particles from reaching most of the atmosphere. However, in a process first seen by NASA’s Maven spacecraft, some solar wind protons can first reverse the arc shock by joining with electrons from the Martian upper atmosphere to form hydrogen atoms.

few percentage orbits with favorable geometry

Because these hydrogen atoms are electrically neutral. They can withstand the impact of an arc and move on Mars as sets of ultraviolet protons. Image by: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The study authors found proton auroras in approximately 14% of their daily observations.

Which increases to more than 80% of the time when only the observations of the southern summer are considered. In comparison, IUVS has detected the isolation of the aurora on Mars in a few percentage orbits with favorable geometry, and discrete auroras fragments are still rare in the data set, “said Dr. Nick Schneider, also of Atmosphere.

And University Space Physics Laboratory, Colorado, Boulder All the necessary conditions to make a proton aurora on Mars (for example, the absence of protons in the solar wind Ti. An expanding hydrogen atmosphere and a global dipole magnetic field) are more available than those of Mars that make up the Auroras.

They are essential, said Dr. Hughes. In addition, MAVEN observes observations of atmospheric leaks. The relationship between and an increase in the frequency and intensity of the proton aurora means that the proton aurora will be used. Really as a proxy.

Mars F. What is happening in the hydrogen crown, and therefore, should be an indicator of an increase in atmospheric graduation and lack of water. It was published in the Placenta geophysical research journals.

Hungarian researchers claim to have seen biosigns in the Martian meteorite. A Martian rock found in Antarctica, according to a team of Hungarian scientists, contains many mineral biodetectors, including coke, filamentous structures, and organic matter.

Artist’s impression of habitable Mars

“Our work is important to a broad audience as it integrates the planetary, terrestrial, biological, chemical and environmental sciences and will be of interest to many researchers in those fields,” said team leader Dr. Said Ildico Giolai. A researcher at the HAS Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences in Budapest. This research will be of interest to planetariums, meteorites, and astronomy experts, as well as origin-of-life researchers and the general public.

And as it exemplifies a novel aspect of microbial mediation in stone meteorites. ALH-77005 thin section: poplin texture of olivine with accumulated pyroxene grains, studied pockets (rectangles) composed mainly of olivine. The Achondrocyte meteorite ALH-77005 was found partially imprisoned in ice at the Allen Hills site in southern Victoria during the Polar Research Mission of the Japanese National Institute in 1977-1978.

It was round in shape and its surface was partially insulated and almost polished by the snow blowing in the wind. Its age is estimated to be approximately 175 million years after exposure to cosmic rays of approximately 3 million years. Thin sections of ALH-77005 in polarized flat light: The area studied by FTIR spectroscopy is characterized by rectangles, where strong cystic changes mediated by microbes were observed.

Thin sections of ALH-77005 in polarized flat light: The area studied by FTIR spectroscopy is characterized by rectangles, where strong cystic changes mediated by microbes were observed. Dr. Joyalai and his co-authors analyzed a thin section of ALH-77005 by light microscopy and FTIR-ATR. They were able to detect the presence of cocoidal and filamentary structures (possibly produced by iron-oxidized microbes).

Organic material

Biogenic minerals, such as ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite. The researchers added, Other indications for the biogenicity of ALH-77005 are strong negatives, 13C, iron, manganese, phosphorous, zinc. Our study proposes the presence of microbial mediation on Mars. The team’s article was published in the online magazine Astronomy. New evidence of life in a Martian meteorite.

The discovery of fossil microbes has been claimed in the meteorites of Mars. Now Hungarian scientists have conducted a new study of the ALH-77005 meteorite, which has some interesting new evidence. Irregular spots of color, like crystals on the cut part of the rock. Fine piece of martyr meteorite ALH-77005. The molten pocket area within the rectangle, where the scientists found evidence of microbial mediation.

Has there ever been life on Mars?

We are still waiting for a definitive answer to that long-standing question, although evidence has continued to build that there may actually be fewer creatures, though most likely they are microscopes, or under those distant red sands. Such a discovery would have a profound effect on the search for life in other parts of the solar system and on the exoplanet that orbits other stars. Now, a research team in Hungary has detected organic materials like minerals and filaments embedded in ALH-77005.

A Martian meteorite from the Allen Hills region of Antarctica. The material in the meteorite is similar to that produced by iron-oxidized microbes on Earth. On March 28, 2019, an online peer review was published in Open Astronomy magazine. According to Ildico Giolai, lead author of the HAS Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences in Budapest:

Our work is important to a wide audience, as it integrates the planetary, earth, biological, chemical, and environmental sciences and will be of interest to many researchers in those fields. This research will be of interest to planetariums, meteorites, and astronomy experts, as well as origin-of-life researchers and the general public, as it exemplifies a novel aspect of microbial mediation in stone meteorites.

A lighter stain like the previous one, except for the dark area marked with a yellow rectangle. Another view of the same thin piece of a meteorite in polarized light. Image via Gyollai et al. Martian ALH-77005 meteorite found in 1977 in Allen Hills, Antarctica. Image via NASA or Wikipedia.

The Japanese National Polar Research Mission Institute (1977–1978) discovered the ALH-77005 meteorite in the Allen Hills in Antarctica in 1977. The meteorite is estimated to be 175 million years old. It is a shergottite meteorite made of igneous rock, named after the shergotti meteorite. Which fell in 1865 in Sherghati, India (formerly Shergotti). About three-quarters of all known Martian meteorites are shergatite.

How do we know that these meteorites came from Mars?

Like other meteorites on Mars. The ALH-77005 is known to have originated on Mars, as it has a structure similar to the rocks and gases in the atmosphere analyzed by the Mars spacecraft. Curiosity Rover confirmed the connection between these meteorites found on Earth in October 2013 after analyzing argon in the atmosphere of Mars. Argon was found to be similar to the argon mark on meteorites.

For this new study, the researchers took samples from a very thin section of the meteorite. And studied it using light microscopy for microscopy (microscopic texture patterns) and FTIR-ATR microscopy. What they found is intriguing. They embedded embedded spherical and filiform structures, materials that represent possible bio-signatures, namely mineral remains of ancient microbes and their transformation of minerals into rock.

Possible biosignatures are found within opaque minerals and within the fusion pocket. Which are the result of blow and fracture during the meteorite’s encounter with Earth. As the document also noted. Other signatures for the biogenicity of ALH-77005 are strong negative delta-C-13, enrichment of iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc in the setting of shock fusion support. Our study proposes the presence of microbial mediation on Mars.

Overall, the findings highlighted by ALH-77005 are listed in the document as follows: Possible iron oxidizing filamentous bacteria found in the shergotite shock pocket. Potential biosignes determined by light microscopy and by FTIR-ATR. Bioactive elements and carbon isotope data- Comparison of similar results of mezzo-madrasa, mox, kannahinya, which, according to these authors, suggest biogenicity on Mars.

This is the first time that possible evidence of life has been found, or at least affirmed, in Martian meteorites. An excellent example: in 1996, David S. A team of scientists led by McKay announced the discovery of floating bacteria like microbial fossils in another Allen Hills meteorite: ALH-84001. It was widely reported, and President Clinton made a speech about it at the time.

discoveries in planetary science and human history

However, other studies by other scientists objected to the interpretation of life, as non-biological explanations were found to constitute characteristics similar to microgroups. Similar (non-life-related) abiotic characteristics were created in the laboratory, although McKay insisted that those results were obtained using pure raw materials not listed as a starting point and in ALH-84001 did not explain many of the characteristics found. In 2010.

Another team of scientists, including McKay, said they found more than three times the original amount of fossil-like data, including more biomorphs (suspected fossils) within two additional Martian meteorites, and more evidence elsewhere in Allen. Curious mineral formations on ALH-77005 now join a growing list of tentative evidence for ancient life on Mars. If they can be confirmed, it would be one of the most exciting discoveries in planetary science and human history.

Many objects of round rectangular end in meteorite. Rod-shaped objects, such as some bacteria found in the Martian meteorite ALH-84001, observed by a scanning electron microscope announced in 1996. Image via McKay et al / Lunar and Planetary Institute. If further research continues to see these new results from Hungary, they are certainly interesting and may help prevent previously announced results from microbial fossils in Martian meteorites.

Biological Origin In Martian Thiophenes

Biological origin in Martian thiophenes, astrobiologists, NASA’s Curiosity Rover recently discovered several kinds of organic matter in Martian sediments. NASA’s Curiosity Rover recently discovered several kinds of organic materials in Martian sediment. A complicated group of organic compounds detected was theophene. Which is usually found in soil, coal, crude oil, stromatolites, microfossils and, strangely, on Earth, in white truffles, the epicenter and loved mushrooms.

Astrobiologists Durk Schulz-Makuch and Jacob Heinz believe that the presence of early life on Mars will be accompanied by the presence of Theophenes. The impression of an artist from a habitable Mars. Image by Deine Ballard / CC BY-SA 3.0. In the study, Drs. Schulz-Makuch and Drs. Heinz explored some possible routes to the origin of the theophenes on Mars. His work suggests that an organic process, which probably contains bacteria, may have played a role in the existence of an organic compound in Martian soil.

A researcher at Washington State University, Dr. “We have identified several biological pathways for theophytes that are more likely than chemical ones, but we still need evidence,” said Shulze-Makuch. If you find theophenos on Earth, you think they are biological. But on Mars, there are times to prove that it should be a little higher. Theophylline molecules have four carbon atoms and sulfur atoms arranged in a ring, and both carbon and sulfur are biossential elements.

Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA)

However, a scientist at the Technische Universität Berlin, Dr. Schulz-Makuch and Dr. Heinz cannot exclude the non-biological processes that lead to the existence of these compounds on Mars. Weather effects provide a possible abiotic description. Thiophene can also be done by thermochemical sulfate reduction, a process that involves a set of compounds that are heated to 120 ° C (248 ° F) or more.

Which existed 3,000 million years ago when Mars was hot and humid, could facilitate the sulfate reduction process and cause theophenis. There are other routes where thiophene is broken down by the bacteria themselves. While curiosity has given many clues, it uses techniques that break down large molecules into components, so scientists can only see the resulting fragments. More evidence should be obtained from the next rover.

Rosalind Franklin, which will be launched in July 2020. It will carry the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). Which uses a less destructive method of analysis that will allow the collection of larger molecules. The team uses the data collected by the next rover to search for carbon and sulfur isotopes. The creatures are lazy.

They will use lighter isotopic forms of the element, because it costs them less energy, said Dr. Schulz-Makuch said. Organisms vary the proportion of heavy and light isotopes in compounds that differ significantly from those found in their basic components, a telltale signal for life. “However, if the next rover returns this isotopic evidence.

It may still not be enough to conclusively prove that life exists or existed on Mars. As Carl Sagan said, ‘extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. I think the test would really need us to send people there, and an astronaut looks through a microscope and sees a dynamic microbe. The team article was published in the Journal Astrobiology.

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