Researchers discovered new bird Taxa in Indonesia. An international team of ornithologists has discovered five new species. Researcher discover new bird taxa in Indonesia. An international team of ornithologists has discovered five new species and five new subspecies of songbirds on islands slightly off the northeast coast of Sulawesi.
New bird Taxa in Indonesia
From November 2013 to January 2014, we conducted a bird collection expedition to three small and small exploration islands off the northeast coast of Sulawesi. In the current center of Indonesia, doctor of the Department of Biological Sciences. Frank Rindt said. National University of Singapore and its partners in Singapore and Indonesia.
These islands are located in the Wallacean region of Indonesia, an archipelago at the interface between Eastern and Australian biographical locations that are named after Alfred R. Wallace. Who was the best-known historical collector who discovered the region. Using genomic and phenotypic techniques, the researchers described five bird species and five subspecies that are new to science during a 6-week expedition.
In Taliabu, the largest member of the Sula Islands, they found three new species: the Taliabu grass warbler (Locostella portenta), the Taliabu mezomella (Myzomella veh. The Taliabu leaf warbler (Phyloscopus amylsalimi)) and three new subspecies: the Taliabu eyebrow flycatcher (Fitedula hyperthra betinbiaru), the thrush of the island of Taliabu (Turdus poliocephalus Suahujan), the lulaiiler of the Sula mountain (Fullergetus cuculatus sulanus).
In Peleng, the largest island in the Benghagi group, they found two new species: the Peleng ghost (Ripidura habebei), the Peleng leaf warbler (Phylloscopus suramerdu); And a new subspecies. The Bengai mountain herbivore (Phyllergates cucullatus relictus). In Bogudaka, one of the two main components of the Togian group. They found a new subspecies: the Togian jungle flytrap (Siornis oasisus omississimus).
Dr. Rindt said: Studying the routes and operations of historical collection expeditions and identifying gaps is a useful approach in our case to indicate focal areas. Describing so many bird species from a geographically limited area is rare. It has been reported that most infestations tolerate some form of habitat degradation and are easily found in forests and secondary coasts, these species or subspecies cause habitat loss on these islands, he said.
Undoubtedly there is danger of large scale. As such, some of the new forms require immediate and lasting conservation action to survive for more than a few decades beyond the date of description. These new bird taxa are described in an article published in the journal Science. Biologists discover previously unknown cell structures in the retina of birds that feed on insects.
A team of researchers has found a new retinal structure in the eyes of New World flycatchers. Called Megabitochondria-Small Oil Droplet Complex (MMOD Complex). This structure can allow these birds to sit and wait to see their world differently from other animals, and find pests and easily track them. Help to do.
This light microscopy image of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empedonax Wierskens) retina shows five drops of conventional oil and additional orange conical structures belonging to the newly described photoreceptor. Most birds have four cone photoreceptors for color vision, a fifth cone for non-color related functions and a night vision rod.
Each cone photoreceptor cell has a spherical structure, called an oil drop, that filters the light before the visible pigment converts it into electrical signals, which increases color discrimination. Instead of a drop of oil, the MMOD complex. Which is found in two species of new world fly hunters of the genus Empedonax (E. virescens and E. minimus), has a high-energy cellular structure called megamecondria that Surrounded by hundreds of small orange colors – Individual drops.
Simple optical microscopy
We discovered that Empedonax’s flycatchers, like all birds, had four single-cone photoreceptors, each with a drop of spherical oil in the inner section of the photoreceptor, said lead author Professor Estebai Fernández-Juric. Department of Biological Sciences of Purdue University. Like other birds, the dominant member of the Empidonax double cone also has a drop of spherical oil.
Each type of cone contained droplets of oil of a different color that could be easily observed with a simple optical microscopy. In addition to these five conventional cones and their associated oil droplets, we found that Empidonax is in the Flycatcher retina, which is probably an additional cone photoreceptor with a novel orange conical structure at the apical end of the inner segment.
The photoreceptors with this organelle lacked a drop of oil that is present in other types of cone. Image of transmission electron microscopy of oranges, conical structures reveal that they are megamitochondria dense in electrons surrounded by numerous small drops of oil. The white asterisk denotes megamitochondria.
The orange arrow indicates the small drops of oil that impart the orange color seen in the image above, and the blue arrow indicates a drop of conventional oil from the neighboring photoreceptor. The researchers studied the MMOD complex using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry.
Department of Biological Sciences
They discovered that this structure acted as a long-pass filter, allowing light with wavelengths to pass 565 nm long, or yellow, orange and red, and absorb shorter wavelengths of green, blue and violet. “The retinas of fly hunters.
Which are predatory birds sitting on hold, have developed a new cellular structure in a photoreceptor that allows them to detect, track and capture prey that grows rapidly like insects,” said the professor. Fernández-Jurisic said. A researcher from the Department of Biological Sciences, Dr. Luke Tyrell said:
This new conical organism has not been described before in any other vertebrate retina and these birds can see their world differently from other animals. In SUNY Plattsburgh. The results are published in an article in the Journal Scientific Reports.
A six-week expedition discovered ten new songbird species and subspecies in Indonesia. A six-week expedition to three small islands near Sulawesi, Indonesia, has produced five new songbird species and five new subspecies. The new species and subspecies were described in an article published in Science last week.
Discovering new bird species
Frank Rindt, a professor at the National University of Singapore, led the research team that explored geological history and historical explorers using notes as a guide in discovering new bird species. While the locals already knew about some species, some birds may go unnoticed as they sound like insects.
A six-week expedition to three small islands near Sulawesi, Indonesia, has produced five new songbird species and five new subspecies. The new species and subspecies were described in an article published in Science last week. Frank Rindt, a professor at the National University of Singapore, led the research team that explored geological history and historical explorers using notes as a guide in discovering new bird species. Rindt and his colleagues.
A joint research team from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), aimed to discover new species around the islands of Taliabu and Palen. As the water from the depths of the sea stretched near them and to the south. Great Sulawesi Island in the west.
Deep waters mean that even during glacial cycles, land bridges and islands cannot form between nearby bodies. Because deep-sea islands like Taliabu and Paleng have always been isolated, species with a high degree of endemism are also more likely to disturb. Both Teliabu and Peleng are located in the Wallasey region of Indonesia.
An archipelago named after British biologist and explorer Sir Alfred Wallace, who collected his own specimens in the region. By examining the accounts of historical collectors like Wallace, Rindt, and the team, they were able to determine that the islands they had chosen to focus on were not extensively explored in the past.
The Sula Islands, including Teliabu, have been visited in the past by only eight collection expeditions, none of which went inland, but mainly adhered to coastal areas. The Bangai Group, which includes the Paleng, was visited only by three historical collectors, who similarly did not explore the interiors of the islands.
Rindt and his team collected ten new bird species and subspecies during a six-week fieldwork, from November 2013 to January 2014, on the Sula and Banggai Islands, as well as on the Togian Islands. The researchers found three new species in Taliabu: Taliabu Grasshopper-Warbler, Taliabu Mezomela, and Taliabu Leaf-Warbler. Three subspecies were also discovered in Tilababu:
Snow Flycatcher-broide, Thrush from Taliabu Island and Leftoiler from Sula Mountain. Peleng fentale and Peleng’s leaf warbler, two new species, were discovered in Peleng, as was a new subspecies.
The Leftoiler of Bangai Mountain
Another new flytrap subspecies from the Togian rainforest was found on Togian Island. Studying historical collection expedition routes and identifying gaps is a useful approach to indicate focal areas in our case, Rindt said in a statement.
A description of various species of this bird from a geographically limited area is rare. While the locals already knew about some species, some birds may go unnoticed as they sound like insects. Rindit told the New Scientist that the grasshopper warrior Taliabu.
For example, sounds like a cricket, and heard his call before he could see one of the birds. When I heard it, I knew it was a kind of lobster warrior. But it was very different from the people I knew, says Rindt. I think it will be a new species, but it took me a week or more to see them for the first time.
New bird species
Birds are one of the most famous animal groups in the world, and not only that, over the past two decades, an average of five or six new species have been discovered each year. Randit suggests that the methods his team employs can be successfully applied to other regions and other wildlife.
Moving forward, the use of land history and bathymetric information in other land fauna and regions beyond the Indonesian archipelago. Can be done. Identify promising islands that can discover new taxa. Ten new birds may already require conservation intervention.
During their time on the islands, researchers first noticed the massive deforestation that has occurred in both Taliabu and Paleng. The islands’ primary lowland forest has been completely destroyed, according to the research team, while the highlands of most islands are subject to forests or forest fires.
While most Avifuna reported that we appear to tolerate some form of habitat erosion and that it is readily found in secondary forests and coasts, some species or subspecies are undoubtedly threatened by the enormous level of habitat loss on these islands, said Randit.
Therefore, immediate and lasting conservation work is required for some new forms to survive for a few decades beyond the date of their description. Tilababu Grasshopper-Wobbler is one of the new bird species discovered by the NUS-LIPI team led by Associate Professor Frank Frank, during his expedition to the Wallacea region of Indonesia.