Health Insurance Definition – Governments around the world are working to provide good quality health care to people. Also, in Budget 2021-22, India’s Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman has placed the utmost importance on the healthcare system. In addition, the authorities periodically take measures for the welfare of the population.
Top 7 Health Insurance Plans
This includes awareness of medical issues, ensuring adequate infrastructure, and promoting health insurance services. These health insurance plans are for everyone, including the farming community. Let us know in detail about the health insurance plans.
What is a government health insurance plan?
It is a plan administered by the central or state government designed to provide adequate health coverage at a low cost of insurance coverage. These health insurance policies are generally offered annually.
1. Ayushman Bharat Plan
Ayushman Bharat is a universal health insurance scheme of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India. PMJAY was launched to provide free health care to more than 40% of the nation’s population. Rs 5 lakh health insurance is available under this scheme.
2. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
The plan is available to people in the 18-70 age group with a bank account who can join / enable automatic debit before May 31 for a coverage period from June 1 to May 31 with an annual renewal. Your consent to Aadhaar will be the primary KYC for the bank account. Accidental death and complete disability and Rs. 1 lakh for partial disability.
Premium of Rs. In one installment, debits will be deducted from the account holder’s bank account 12 per year through the “automatic debit” feature. The scheme is offered by public sector general insurance companies or any other general insurance company, which are willing to offer the product on equal terms with the required conditions and are linked with banks for this purpose.
3. Aam Aadmi insurance plan
The Government of India launched the Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana (AABY) in October 2007. It covers natural or accidental death and disability of persons belonging to certain occupational groups. Almost the entire workforce in India is employed in the unorganized sector. Workers belonging to these professional groups are prone to accidents and illnesses.
4. Central government health plan
The central government health plan provides health services to Indian employees and pensioners who are registered in the plan. The plan provides reimbursement and cashless services to enrolled members.
5. State employment insurance scheme
The Employees State Insurance Scheme of India is an integrated social security scheme designed to provide social security to workers and their dependents in the organized sector such as sickness, maternity and death or disability, work accidents or occupation. Because of the danger.
6. West Bengal Health Plan
The West Bengal government started this scheme for its employees in 2008. It is also available to retirees. This coverage is provided on the basis of individual and family floats, up to an insurance amount of Rs 1 lakh. The policy includes OPD treatment and medical surgery according to the terms and conditions of the policy.
7. Yashaswini Health Insurance Scheme
The Karnataka state government promotes the Yashaswini health insurance plan. This scheme is useful for farmers and farmers and those who are associated with the cooperative society. This health insurance plan covers more than 800 medical procedures such as neurology, orthopedics, angioplasty, etc.
High sensitivity for the diagnosis of COVID-19 coronavirus disease. According to scientists, the chest CT is a routine imaging tool for the diagnosis of pneumonia. Chest CT, a routine imaging tool for the diagnosis of pneumonia, had a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of COVID-19 coronavirus disease.
And compared to the initial reverse transcription transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) of swab samples in the epidemic region of China. Was made. An article published in the Journal Radiology.
This scanning electron microscope image is shown by isolating the SARS-CoV-2 virus (yellow) from a patient in the USA. UU. Which emerges from the surface of cultured cells (pink) in the laboratory. Image 2.0 by NIAID-RML Since December 2019, several cases of ‘unknown viral pneumonia’ have been reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.
It was suspected that a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 had etiology with the phenolofus bat as its supposed origin. It shows a scanning electron microscope image (SARS-CoV-2 virus – yellow) isolated from a patient in the USA. UU., Which originates from the surface of cultured cells (pink) in the laboratory.
In just two months, the virus has spread from Wuhan throughout China and 33 other countries. In the absence of medications or specific therapeutic vaccines for COVID-19, it is necessary to detect the disease at an early stage and immediately isolate an infected patient from a healthy population.
According to the latest guidelines published by the Chinese government, the diagnosis of COVID-19 should be confirmed by RT-PCR or genetic sequencing for respiratory or blood samples, as it is the main indicator of hospitalization.
However, with the limitations of sample collection and transport, as well as kit performance, it has been reported that the total positive rate of RT-PCR throat swab samples is approximately 30% to 60% in the initial presentation
In the current public health emergency, the low sensitivity of RT-PCR implies that a large number of patients with COVID-19 are not recognized early and cannot receive adequate treatment. In addition, given the highly infectious nature of the virus, they run the risk of infecting a large population.
“The early diagnosis of COVID-19 is important for the treatment and control of diseases. Compared to RT-PCR, computed tomography of the chest can be a more reliable, practical and quick way to diagnose and evaluate COVID-19.
Especially in the epidemic area, “lead author Dr. Liming Xia told the Department of Radiology and Tongji Hospital, University of Science and Technology of Huazhong Wuhan and colleagues.
Chest whistle is fast and relatively easy
Recent research found that the sensitivity of CT for COVID-19 infection was 98%, compared to a RT-PCR sensitivity of 71%. Chest CT images of a 29-year-old man with a 6-year-old fever. The RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed on February 5, 2020 with a positive effect using a swab sample:
- (A) Normal chest CT was initially obtained along the axial and coronal planes;
- (B) Chest CT along the axial and coronal planes reflects a minimum of ground vitreous opium in the bilateral lower pulmonary lobe (yellow arrow);
- (C) Chest CT along the axial and coronal planes increases the opacity of the frosted glass (yellow arrows);
- (D) Chest CT along the axial and coronal planes reflects the progression of pneumonia with mixed frosted glass opacities and linear opacities in the subpleural region;
- (E) Chest CT along the axial and coronal planes reflects both the absorption of the opacity of the frosted glass and the organization of pneumonia.
Image by Ai et al, doi: 10.1148 / radiol. 2020200642. For the present study, Dr. at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan. Xia and his co-authors set out to investigate the clinical value and stability of chest CT images compared to the RT-PCR assay in COVID-19.
The study included 1,014 patients who underwent chest CT and RT-PCR tests between January 6 and February 6, 2020. The performance of the chest CT was evaluated in the diagnosis of COVID-19, with RT-PCR as the reference standard.
For patients with multiple RT-PCR trials, the dynamic conversion (positive to positive and negative to positive, respectively) of the results of the RT-PCR test was also analyzed compared to sequential chest CT scans.
The results showed that 601 patients (59%) had positive RT-PCR results, and 888 (88%) had positive chest CT scans. The sensitivity of chest CT was 97% on the suggestion of COVID-19 based on positive RT-PCR results.
In patients with negative RT-PCR results, 75% (308 of 413 patients) had positive results of chest CT. Of these, 48% were considered as possible cases, 33% as possible cases. Based on the analysis of serial RT-PCR and CT scans, the interval between the initial negative results of positive RT-PCR was 4 to 8 days.
In approximately 81% of patients with negative RT-PCR results, but through a thorough analysis of clinical symptoms, specific manifestations of CT and dynamic follow-up of CT, positive chest computed tomography with COVID- 19 as highly probable or probable cases It was reclassified, the researchers said.
The fight to determine if a chest CT scan may be helpful in evaluating patients with COVID-19 infection is moving toward new research examining the use of low-dose CT images. In an April 21 study published in Radiology.
Cardiothoracic Imaging, researchers, Anthony Dangis, MD, head of the Radiology Department at Imelda Hospital, Bonehead, Belgium, performed an early CT computed tomography scan using radiation doses of less than 1 mSv And precisely determined. In emergency room patients, especially those who have exhibited symptoms for more than 48 hours.
These findings are a positive step for providers who want to make a quick diagnosis without unnecessarily exposing patients to excess radiation. The results are also helpful, the team argued, since diagnosis COVID-19, the gold standard for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), can be as low as 70 percent and, according to some previously published research, chest CT can have a sensitivity of more than 90 percent.
Provide an effective diagnosis
The team wrote: Given the widespread use of chest CT to detect COVID-19, our results suggest the use of low-dose chest CT to achieve a significant reduction in radiation dose at the population level during this epidemic. Demonstrate the feasibility of doing. To assess how low a dose can still provide an effective diagnosis, as well as how quickly the scan can be completed.
The team conducted a study with 192 emergency room patients from March 14 to 24, which COVID-19 presented with symptoms. The median age was 62 years, but the patients who finally tested positive for the virus were slightly older (67 years) and more likely to have a fever (68.7 percent compared to 45.9 percent). Dangis’ team performed a low-dose submillisievert chest computed tomography exam using this protocol:
100 kVp, 20 mAs, a pitch of 1.2, and a gantry rotation time of 0.5 seconds. The patients also received RT-PCR tests and, according to the results, 43.2 patients were positive for COVID-19, and 56.8 percent were negative for the virus. Overall, the team found that low-dose chest CT offered clinically robust results, especially when evaluating patients who had demonstrated symptoms for more than 48 hours.
In those patients, the CT scans were more sensitive than a general group (95.6 percent to 86.7 percent). The images had slightly higher positive predictive values (91.5 percent to 91.1 percent) and a higher negative predictive value (96.5 percent to 90.3 percent). Accuracy was also better: 94.2 percent compared to 90.6 percent. However, the specificity was slightly lower, at 93.2 percent versus 93.6 percent.
Based on analysis of the results, the team also determined that the average effective radiation dose for the low-dose chest CT protocol was 0.56 mSv, and the average time between image capture and reports of the patients was 25 minutes, with a range from 13 minutes to 49. The limit was minutes. Based on CT performance and outcome measurement.
The team specifically recommended chest CT as a diagnostic tool for COVID-19 under certain circumstances. Low-dose chest computed tomography may play a complementary role for RT-PCR in the early stages of patients with possible COVID-19 infection, he said. Chest CT may have the added benefit of offering an alternative diagnosis in a significant subset of patients.
Health: what it is and how to support it! The term “health” is used in various contexts, but it can be defined as the state of sound in all aspects of life. In other words, it refers to the general state of emotional, mental and physical well-being of a person.
According to the World Health Organization, “health is a resource for everyday life, not the purpose of life.” Health is a positive concept that emphasizes social and personal resources, as well as physical abilities.
Furthermore, it is essentially the physical and mental well-being of an individual that leads to a healthy social and emotional state to support a fulfilling social life. For everyone, maintaining good health is essential to living an active and stressful life.
Some Important Health Facts
There is a total absence of any kind of obstacle to lead a happy life within the health-related society. It is not only about the absence of diseases and deformities, but also about the ability to combat the symptoms of poor health in all contexts. Health depends on personal, social and environmental factors.
Regular exercise, a healthy diet, and precautionary measures are the keys to a healthy life. In recent studies, researchers have restored the meaning of health as the ability to adapt to new threats and fraud. Therefore, it is important to understand the types of health that can affect a person’s life.
Health types of a person’s life
Although health concerns an important aspect of a person’s life, physical and mental well-being are the most influential. The rest of the factors are, in fact, responsible for maintaining these two aspects and vice versa.
Since mental health depends on personal experiences and varies from person to person, it is a bit difficult to describe complete mental well-being. In a sensible approach to understanding mental well-being. It is described as the social, financial, and emotional well-being of a person.
It may be unwise to consider a person to be mentally healthy if they are not suffering from anxiety, depression, or any other mental illness. Because these disorders only refer to a person’s intelligence and not general behavior. Therefore, a better understanding of a person’s behavior and personality traits is often used to assess mental illness.
With the advancement of technology and recent improvements in testing. Some symptoms of mental illness are recognized. In fact, modern tools like CT scans and genetic analyzers have allowed doctors to visualize various symptoms of mental health-related problems.
Compared to mental health, physical health is easier to define. This refers to the careful balancing of your personal and surrounding physical balance for your best performance. In case of any illness or weakness due to regular exercise, nutritious dietary intake and adequate rest, a person can experience a healthy state of mind.
Treatment is only required when a person is diagnosed with any symptoms related to their health, visually or through laboratory procedures. On the other hand, to reduce any potential risk of contracting an infection or any disease. The pursuit of a healthy lifestyle is considered.
For example, a fitness regimen can help enable proper muscle function and body composition, as well as improve stamina and immunity against various heart disorders. It is noteworthy that physical health also affects mental health.
Therefore, it allows excessive coordination between the neural and muscular systems. Additionally, fitness and well-being also help reduce the risk of serious injury by supporting conscious decision-making.
what factors affect personal health?
Personal health depends on several factors. These include a person’s genetic inheritance, the environment a person lives in, and day-to-day governance. For example, an individual who inherits an unusual genetic pattern may suffer from less than optimal health. It depends on these factors whether physical or mental health is affected.
People who live in suburban areas or areas with significant health alerts are more likely to be infected with the common flu and other acute illnesses. It should be noted that environmental conditions can have an even greater impact on a person’s health. The WHO suggests that access to health care plays an important role, but there are more factors that affect a person’s health.
Place where a person lives
According to the WHO, environmental conditions in an area such as pollution levels, air quality. Traffic conditions, population and the like are responsible for the health status of an individual. The availability of healthy resources such as medicines and basic health services is therefore considered a human right. Some studies suggest that these basic factors in combination with genetic data can alter the health conditions of future generations.
Socioeconomic status can affect a person’s health, both mentally and physically. People who perceive their socioeconomic status lower than others suffer from a lot of stress. Stress can be caused by low income that can affect a person’s daily life. This can subsequently lead to the dissolution of the marriage, unemployment, marginalization and, in some cases, discrimination.
Adequate dietary satisfaction refers to adequate dietary intake by a person that provides the body with all the necessary nutrition. Not only is it necessary for the body to function, but it also helps keep disorders and impairments at bay. You use Mimosa pudica for weight loss.
There are many examples of dietary inclusions that not only help meet nutritional needs, but also help protect against disease and, in the absence of such foods in the daily diet, a person’s general health can deteriorate over time.
Various psychological studies have shown from time to time that the health of an individual’s relationship with her partner can also affect the person’s overall health. For example, a good relationship can help boost immunity and encourage healthy habits.
On the other hand, a troubled relationship can lead to weight gain ranging from depression, anxiety, and many, many health disorders. It is noteworthy that maintaining a healthy personal relationship is an option and not an obligation. Although you can’t control all of these factors, ensuring some easy and effective lifestyle practices can contribute to good health.
Supporting good health
Maintaining good health is a life-long process. It is a thoughtful process that can be achieved through a healthy lifestyle. It is not just physical or mental health that must be maintained. In fact, a careful balance between all aspects of life, ensuring a healthy social, mental, physical, financial, spiritual and emotional well-being, is the only and only way to achieve individual personal health.
To maintain good health, one must learn to deal with stress, ensuring a healthy diet and regular exercise. Also, to manage a healthy financial and socioeconomic status. While good health in all respects can be subjective and vary from person to person, there are certain steps that are common to all.
For example, washing your hands before and after meals, consuming clean water, and taking similar precautions can ensure that you don’t get infected with parasites. Therefore, keep infection at bay. In short, good health cannot be achieved overnight. Active participation in and constant awareness of a healthy lifestyle can be beneficial in maintaining a person’s overall health.
According to the McKinley Center for Health at the University of Illinois, Well-being is an optimal state of well-being geared toward maximizing a person’s potential. It can grow in the direction of improving physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual, and health. environmental well-being. It’s a life-long process.
The study authors say it’s not possible to know if SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus that causes COVID-19 disease, will behave the same way, but their findings are expected to give scientists COVID-19. to better prepare for the weather during the epidemic.
The study was published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Although the seasonal coronaviruses found in Michigan are linked to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, we have no idea if this virus will explain how these seasonal viruses will behave in the future, said study lead author Professor Arnold Monto.
Only time will tell whether sars-cov-2 will become a continuous presence in the landscape of respiratory infection, continue with limited circulation with MERS, or, like SARS, disappear entirely from humans. Professor Monto and his colleagues used data from the Domestic Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) study.
A longitudinal investigation of respiratory diseases in households with children in the Ann Arbor, Michigan area. During the past 10 years, between 890 and 1,441 individuals participated in hundreds of studied homes. The study now tracks the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible involvement in Michigan households.
In 2010, it began tracking the appearance of four types of human coronaviruses. Professor Monto and his co-authors analyzed the frequency, seasonal and domestic transmission characteristics of 993 infections due to these coronaviruses and infections:
- (i) When year-over-year surveillance was ongoing, most coronavirus cases were detected between December and April / May and peaked in January / February; Only 2.5% of the cases occurred between June and September;
- (ii) the highest frequency of infection was in children younger than 5 years;
- (iii) of 993 infections, 260 were obtained from infected domestic contact;
- (iv) the serial interval between the index and home-acquired cases ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 days; The risk of secondary infection ranged from 7.2% to 12.6%;
- (v) Overall, 6% of adult cases and 20% of child cases were related to doctor visits; On average, 30% of influenza cases require a visit to the doctor;
- (vi) Children under the age of 5 and children over the age of 50 are more likely to be severely classified.
The common coronavirus viruses studied are increasingly seasonal in Michigan and appear based on serial endpoints and risk of secondary infection, with H3N2-like transmission capacity in the same population. The results do not necessarily reflect how the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus will behave, the researchers said.
In another ongoing study, they are using samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to observe the introduction of that virus into the community. Preliminary results show no evidence that the new coronavirus was present in the community before March. Common coronaviruses are highly seasonal with most cases in winter.
According to a new study by researchers at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, four out of seven coronaviruses known to infect people cause common respiratory infections that are rapidly seasonal and transmitted similarly to influenza.
The study authors state that it is not possible to determine whether the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which causes COVID-19 disease, will behave the same way. But he hopes his findings will help researchers better prepare for the COVID-19 epidemic. Their study appears in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Despite the fact that seasonal coronaviruses found in Michigan are related to SARS-CoV-2, we do not know if the virus will behave like seasonal coronaviruses, said Collegiate Professor of Epidemiology Thomas Franco at the UM School of Public Schools , Arnold Monto – Health.
Only time will tell whether SARS-CoV-2 will become a constant presence on the stage of respiratory infection, continue with limited circulation with MERS, or, like SARS, disappear entirely from humans. Researchers have noted that while coronaviruses have long been recognized as human respiratory pathogens, human coronaviruses have historically been detected in mild respiratory diseases.
Investigation of respiratory illness
However, when coronaviruses from animals spread to humans, they can cause serious illness. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) emerged in 2002 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012 when a coronovirus jumped from an animal into people. The COVID-19 epidemic is believed to have started in the same way.
Monto and colleagues used data from the Domestic Influenza Vaccine Assessment Study, a longitudinal investigation of respiratory illness in households with children in the Ann Arbor area. Over the past 10 years, 890 to 1,441 people from several hundred households participated in the study.
Ongoing studies are now tracking the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible presence in Michigan homes. In 2010, the study began tracking the emergence of four typically mild human coronaviruses (OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63). The researchers analyzed the frequency, season, and home transmission characteristics of the 993 infections that caused those coronaviruses.
They found, overall, 9% of adult cases and 20% of children were associated with doctor visits. On average, 30% of influenza cases require a visit to the doctor. When monitored throughout the year, most coronavirus cases were detected between December and April. Only 2.5% of cases occurred between June and September.
The highest frequency of infection was in children younger than 5 years. Of 993 infections, 260 were obtained from infected household contact. The serial interval between the index and home-acquired cases ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 days. The risk of secondary infection ranged from 7.2% to 12.6% by type. Cases in children younger than 5 years and adults older than 50 years were more likely to be classified as severe.
Monto and colleagues claim that the coronaviruses studied are increasingly seasonal in Michigan and appear based on serial endpoints and the risk of secondary infection, leading to a transmission capacity similar to influenza A (H3N2) virus. ) in the study population Es. They say that the results are not indicative of how SARS-CoV-2 will behave.
In a separate ongoing study, researchers are using samples collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic to detect community introduction of SARS-CoV-2. Preliminary results show no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 existed in the community before March. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, through grants R01 AI097150 and R56 AI097150.
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Coronavirus occurrence and transmission for 8 years in a cohort of HIV-positive households in Michigan.
Vaccines & Clinical Efforts
Understanding the genome sequences helps researchers choose the correct strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus for vaccines and clinical efforts. The first 181 published SARS-CoV-2 genomes were analyzed to understand how changes in the virus can affect its behavior and effects. This RNA virus is expected to evolve into many different groups that share the mutation that we have confirmed and visualized, said Professor SS Vasan, leader of the CSIRO dangerous pathogens team and researcher at York University.
At this time, we do not expect this to affect the development and evaluation of COVID-19 vaccines, therapy, and diagnosis, but it is important information to monitor as preclinical and clinical studies progress. To enable this, we are asking the international research community to share unidentified information about the severity of the case and the results and other relevant metadata such as comorbidity and smoking with genomic sequences of the virus.
Vaccinology and virology
This study demonstrates the importance of cross collaboration between established and emerging disciplines of bioinformatics, genomics, vaccinology and virology. CEO of CSIRO’s Australian Center for Electronic Health Research & this is a critically important component of CSIRO’s response after a peer-reviewed scientific process like this, said David Henson. The team’s article was published in a magazine called Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.