Black hole: Stephen Hawking’s law of the area of ​​black hole has been confirmed

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Stephen Hawking’s law of the area of ​​black hole has been confirmed. Hawking’s black hole field theorem, also known as the second law of black hole mechanics, states that the total area of ​​the horizon of a classical black hole cannot decrease with time. The theorem is named after physicist Stephen Hawking, who proposed it in 1971. A team of American physicists has confirmed this for the first time using observations of the gravitational wave phenomenon GW150914.

Black hole

An artist’s impression of a black hole. Image credit: tips16.com. In 1971, Stephen Hawking proposed the Black Hole Field Theorem, which established a number of fundamental insights into the mechanics of black holes. The theorem predicts that the total area of ​​the event horizon of a black hole and all black holes in the universe, for that matter, should never decrease.

This statement was a curious parallel to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy, or even the degree of disorder, within an object must never decrease. The similarity between the two theories suggested that black holes can behave like thermal objects that emit heat – a confusing proposition, since their nature never allowed black holes to escape or radiate energy.

Hawking finally put an end to the two ideas in 1974, showing that black holes can have entropy and emit radiation for very long periods of time if their quantum effects are taken into account. This phenomenon was called Hawking radiation and it is one of the most fundamental revelations about black holes.

“It all started when Hawking realized that the total area of ​​the horizon in a black hole can never go down,” said physicist Dr. Maximiliano Isi of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. The field law spans a golden age in the 1970s in which all these ideas came about.

Hawking and others have since shown that the field theorem works mathematically, but there was no way to prove it against nature until the first detection of gravitational waves by LIGO. Hawking immediately contacted LIGO co-founder Professor Kip Thorne after hearing the results. His question: Can detection confirm the field theorem?

Gravitational waves

At the time, the researchers did not have the ability to determine, before and after the merger, the information needed within the signal to determine that the final horizon region had not decreased, as Hawking’s theorem holds. In the new study, Dr. Isi and his colleagues took a closer look at GW150914, the first gravitational wave signal discovered by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015.

The signal was the product of two inductive black holes that produced a new black hole, as well as a large amount of energy that rippled through space-time as gravitational waves. If Hawking’s field theorem is valid, then the horizon region of the new black hole must not be smaller than the total horizon region of its parent black hole.

Physicists re-analyzed the GW150914

Physicists re-analyzed the GW150914 signal before and after the cosmic collision and found that, in fact, the total area of ​​the event horizon did not decrease after the merger, a result they report with 95% confidence. Their findings mark the first direct observational confirmation of Hawking’s field theorem, which has been proven mathematically but has never been observed in nature until now.

The researchers now plan to test future gravitational wave signals to see if they can confirm Hawking’s theorem or be a sign of new law-bending physics. There may be a zoo of different compact objects, and some of them are black holes that obey the laws of Einstein and Hawking, others may be slightly different animals, Dr. Isi said. So it’s not like you did this test once and it’s over. You do it once, and that’s the beginning. The team’s article will be published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

According to Stephen Hawking, entering a black hole may not be the end. What happens if you enter a black hole? Holograms or alternative universes according to a new theory by the respected physicist Stephen Hawking. A science fiction subject for decades, black holes have been known to suck up everything around them, like a vacuum cleaner with such a strong gravitational pull that nothing and no one can escape.

Stephen Hawking

However, at the week-long Hawking Radiation Conference held at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden, Stephen Hawking sheds new light on what can actually happen when matter is absorbed by one. Technically, matter should be impossible to completely disappear when it enters a black hole (we can blame the fundamental laws of the universe for this), and Hawking’s new theory suggests that quantum mechanics information is retained as a permanent 2D hologram. on its edge.

It’s a pretty mind-boggling concept, but one eloquent Reddit user summed it up quite deliciously over lunch. Unfortunately, this quantum information is in a “chaotic and useless form” and “for all practical purposes, the information is lost,” according to Hawking. Well, does this dispel the old theory that you can use black holes to travel to new and exotic places?

Well, Hawking has an answer for that too, suggesting that matter could optically end up in an entirely different universe. The existence of an alternate history with black holes suggests that this may be possible. The hole must be large and if it were spinning there might be a way to go to another universe.

Black hole

So his options when faced with the prospect of entering a black hole now include becoming an incredibly small mass object. A hologram that borders the most unfortunate inhabitants of the universe, or that appear together in another universe with no hope of ever returning. Hawking himself would not prove any of these theories: “So while I look forward to space flight, I won’t try.”

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